Beyond Skill: Institutions, Organisations and Human Capability

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Focusing on Growing the Human and Institutional Capabilities of Project Management

Bosch, G. Sage Publications Schmid, G. Reprinted with permission Figure 3. Vandenberg, R. Reprinted with permission Figure 7. His research is concerned with the links between HRM and strategic management and with the changing nature of work and employment systems. Jane is an organisational psychologist, and prior to joining the University staff she worked for 15 years as a consultant in organisation development and HRM.

Her research interests focus on the investigation of HRM, organisational and individual capability; and on professionals, managers and occupational change. Prior to this she held positions in the Australian public service. Her research interests focus on intergroup and intragroup processes involved in a collective action and the politicisation of identity; and b social movement building. During this period he worked on issues as diverse as public sector job creation and local employment initiatives, the employment impact of cuts in barrier protection and labour dimensions of microeconomic reform.

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John also worked briefly for the trade union movement as a researcher examining the issue of performance pay amongst white collar, public sector employees. Since joining the WRC John has lead a large number of research teams that have examined a wide range of issues concerned with the changing nature of work. Currently his major research interests are the demise of the classical wage earner model of employment and the role of the state in nurturing new forms of multi-employer coordination to promote both efficiency and fairness in the labour market.

His research focuses on New Zealand economic and social policy, which has produced more than academic publications since , including five books two of which have been translated and published in Japan. Professor Dalziel is the science leader for a large fiveyear programme supported by the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology that is researching the way schools and communities can better support young people making choices about their education and employment as they leave school.

He is the President of the Australia New Zealand Regional Science Association International and has twice received awards from Lincoln University for excellence in research and a third award for excellence in teaching. Michelle began He has published widely on issues related to skills policy, higher education, and vocational education and training, in journals such as: the Journal of Education and Work, the Journal of Education Policy, the Oxford Review of Economic Policy.

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Her research so far has covered industries as diverse as public libraries, primary industries, and community services and health. He has a background in political economy and in agricultural economics. His research interest is the interaction between globalising production and political processes and local labour market structures and policies.

He has been involved in the Labour Market Dynamics Research Programme since the mids and has led the programme for the last 10 years.

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The research team have been funded to examine the changing labour market in New Zealand, including non-standard work, employability, youth and Maori work transitions, by the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. Paul Spoonley has edited or written 24 books on ethnicity and identity, labour markets and politics with publishers such as Oxford University Press, Pearson and Penguin.

Ken was educated at Oxford and LSE. In and he was Economic Director at the UK National Economic Development Office, and has worked as a consultant for many private and public sector organisations at home and abroad.

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His main research interests are in labour economics, human resource management and the economics of education and training. List of Figures and Tables Figures 2. It discusses the impact of government policy, other institutional arrangements, organisational practices, collective and individual behaviour, on all these things. This symposium marked the end of a five year research programme investigating the impact of institutions, organisations and individuals on the development of human capability.

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The core task of the book is to critically analyse recent policy and practice pertaining to work and skills. It does this from a variety of perspectives, and it introduces in Chapters 2 and 10 the concept of human capability as a way to constructively reorient our considerations of work, skill, and productive societies.

Why move beyond skill? Labour market, work and economic development policy visions in many developed countries have been dominated in recent years by a fixation on skills. However, skill and skill development alone is not enough to harmonise societies, transform economies, galvanise organisations, and fulfil individual aspirations. The whole notion of skill has become fraught. In recent years discussions of skill have experienced both a broadening and a narrowing of focus.

On the one hand new institutional meanings of skill 1 On the other hand there has been a narrowing of policy views on skill acquisition, for instance that it largely occurs through training episodes or formal qualifications. The skill narrative tends to reduce discussion to short-term actions training, recognition of prior learning, employer determined competency frameworks but does not clarify policy objectives. Skill, whilst important, distracts attention from a more complex bigger picture.

That picture includes society as whole, the place and aspiration of the individual and groups within it, the role of work and employment, and the influence of capitalist and democratic institutions. Thus reality is far more complex than the somewhat linear vision of the high skill pathway. Challenges of moving beyond current notions of skill We live in societies, not just economies. We aspire to live lives we have reason to value, that is to be capable humans not just skill sets for the workplace. This bigger picture has been the traditional concern of academic debate.

Philosophers, political economists, sociologists, and others from Marx and Weber to Giddens and Sen have reflected and theorised on the connections between humans, work, society and well-being. The academic and policy challenge in moving beyond current notions is, as it has always been, to generate better or different understanding of the settings in which we operate. Our current settings also present challenges.

Globalisation, mobility and migration, have made our communities and economies more complex. In many developed countries changes to collective bargaining such as: lower coverage, decreased union density and minimum employment standards, and changed modes of employment such as: non-standard, low paid, precarious, contractors and non-employees have undermined more traditional views of citizenship and industrial citizenship Fudge, As a result some have observed tension in There are two recent examples of attempts to rethink the big picture in order to respond to growing tensions.

One is work in the European Union EU which links human capabilities, economic policy and social policy see Salais and Villeneuve, The second example is the skills eco-systems approach. First explored by Finegold this approach acknowledges the broader institutional context and the interdependency of a network of factors that underpin business success.

In Chapter 3 of this volume Buchanan and Jakubauskas revisit skill ecosystems in the light of the developing human capability research.

Beyond skill The chapters in this book take the debate and critical analysis another significant step forward by: i looking beyond current notions of skill, and ii acknowledging the complex interaction of institutions, organisations and individual behaviour in shaping our societies, workplaces and ourselves. They provide a series of insights to the complexity of creating work institutions which allow people to be capable.

In particular several chapters introduce and explore the notion of developing human capability. Human capability, described by Sen as the ability to lead lives we value and have reason to value, provides a much needed counterpoint to the largely organisationally instrumental and human capital assumptions that have dominated debates on work and skills. Workplaces, employers and workers are complex and unique, but all exist within a larger social system.

This Connections are drawn between government policy, institutions, organisational practices and individual experiences. Whilst acknowledging the high skills visions of economic development favoured by many western economies, this book takes a critical stance reporting on practical issues encountered by employers and workers in pursuing this vision. It also takes a broader alternative view by connecting to notions of human capability and by exploring the range of influences on societal, organisational and individual outcomes.

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Hence the book is organised in three parts. Part I comprises chapters which address a range of institutional influences and workplace effects. This approach placed positive freedoms and the capabilities to function at the centre of analysis and policy consideration rather than economic outcomes. In addition, significantly, it reorients focus onto human capability — how people can achieve lives of value to them — for instance, as citizens, community members, workers or family members.

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Drawing on several recent large scale Australian studies John Buchanan and Michelle Jakubauskas in Chapter 3 reflect on changing conditions of labour supply and demand, and processes of matching them. They use the concepts of transitional labour markets and of skill eco-systems to aid this reflection. In conclusion they propose a reconceptualisation of occupation and vocational streams as public goods which may provide a better way to aid human flourishing. He discusses major differences between these countries and also America.

He shows how the dismantling of various institutional protections in the s stimulated the growth of low paid work in the United Kingdom. Comparison to changing practices in other countries provides convincing evidence that the differences in their low pay profiles are due to the nature of their pay setting institutions.

Mayhew also explores the role of skill acquisition in ameliorating misfortune in the labour market. In Chapter 5 Paul Spoonley explores the impact of the significant growth in various forms of non-standard work. Using the New Zealand context he examines the changing institutions that have underpinned and reflected this growth, for example, changes in: labour markets, labour market engagement, employment contracts, and the organisation of the labour process.

The chapters in Part II focus on organisational influences and individual effects.