Exercise and Sport in Diabetes (Practical Diabetes)
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Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 30 10 , International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance 11 6 , Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research 13 3 , Similar magnitude of post-exercise hyperglycemia despite manipulating resistance exercise intensity in type 1 diabetes individuals. Turner, D.. Algorithm that delivers an individualized rapid-acting insulin dose after morning resistance exercise counters post-exercise hyperglycaemia in people with Type 1 diabetes.
Diabetic Medicine 33 4 , Russell, M.. Relationships between match activities and peak power output and Creatine Kinase responses to professional reserve team soccer match-play. Human Movement Science 45 , 96 Heise, T..
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Similar risk of exercise-related hypoglycaemia for insulin degludec to that for insulin glargine in patients with type 1 diabetes: a randomized cross-over trial. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism 18 2 , West, Daniel J.. Post-warmup strategies to maintain body temperature and physical performance in professional rugby union players. Journal of Sports Sciences 34 2 , A workplace-based risk assessment improves predicted lifetime cardiovascular disease risk in male steelworkers. Public Health , Improved end-stage high-intensity performance but similar glycemic responses after waxy barley starch ingestion compared to dextrose in type 1 diabetes.
Bracken, R. Type 1 diabetes and physical activity: An assessment of knowledge and needs in healthcare practitioners. Journal of Diabetes Nursing 20 8 , Campbell, M. Insulin therapy and dietary adjustments to normalize glycemia and prevent nocturnal hypoglycemia after evening exercise in type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Taylor, Tom. The impact of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on recovery after intensive, muscle damaging, maximal speed training in professional team sports players.
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 18 3 , Mallipedhi, Akhila. Journal of Diabetes Research , 1 Shearer, David A.. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport 86 4 , British Journal of General Practice 65 , e -e Association between the preoperative fasting and postprandial C-peptide AUC with resolution of type 2 diabetes 6months following bariatric surgery.
Metabolism 64 11 , Impact of single and multiple sets of resistance exercise in type 1 diabetes. Simulated games activity vs continuous running exercise: A novel comparison of the glycemic and metabolic responses in T1DM patients. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels. Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research 12 6 , Diabetes Care 37 7 , Campbell, Matthew D.. Jones, Marc R. Match play performance characteristics that predict post-match creatine kinase responses in professional rugby union players.
Examining the levels of occupational physical activity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes Pages: - Profiling the time-course changes in neuromuscular function and muscle damage over two consecutive tournament stages in elite rugby sevens players.
Exercise and Sport in Diabetes, 2nd Ed., Part 3: Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes
Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport 17 6 , Reductions in resistance exercise-induced hyperglycaemic episodes are associated with circulating interleukin-6 in Type 1 diabetes. Diabetic Medicine 31 8 , Comparison of the metabolic responses to ingestion of hydrothermally processed high-amylopectin content maize, uncooked maize starch or dextrose in healthy individuals. British Journal of Nutrition 07 , They also provide electrolytes that help to replenish mineral losses. These are recommended for activities lasting more than one hour.. Coca-Cola soft drinks also contain caffeine, which may increase dehydration during exercise..
The high content of sugars and stimulants mean that they are not recommended as supplements during physical exercise.. Fruit juices: it is necessary to distinguish between natural and processed juices. Some processed juices may be added to this group, i.
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Glucose tablets: these raise blood sugar more quickly. They should be taken very slowly and with plenty of liquids to facilitate their absorption..
Type 1 diabetes
Glucose gels: these contain a mixture of glucose or other sugars with water and fruit flavours that give the emulsion a more pleasant taste than that of glucose tablets.. Energy bars: they are usually made from cereals or flour, to which a certain amount of sugars or proteins is added.
They fulfil a double function in regard to exercise, because in addition to maintaining blood glucose levels, they help to suppress the appetite in long-duration exercises. There are also dried-fruit bars.. Examples of foods by carbohydrate intake. Composition in CHs of supplements most commonly used in sport. If travelling in order to practice a sport, it is a good idea to have a special bag ready for regular use.
The bag should contain the usual medicines, a blood glucose monitor with test strips, needles and lancets, information on where to go in an emergency and a copy of one's diabetes management plan.
Batteries or chargers for the capillary blood glucose monitor.. For people treated with continuous insulin infusion systems insulin pumps , it is advisable to have replacement parts on hand spare catheters, reservoirs, etc. Footwear suitable for sports and cotton socks. Feet should be cared for appropriately, by staying hydrated and by watching for any irritations, blisters and wounds.. Weather-appropriate clothing is needed, wearing clothes that keep the body dry.
Material such as polypropylene and silk help to absorb sweat and also prevent irritation.. It is important to carry contact information.. Athletes should be able to recognise the symptoms early and know how to treat them. It is important to know that the symptoms of hypoglycaemia are not specific and may vary from person to person.. Athletes and their activity partners should receive appropriate training to treat episodes of hypoglycaemia.
In this case, blood glucose should be measured at minute intervals during exercise, if possible, and every hours after exposure. In cases where there is a history of nocturnal hypoglycaemia, blood glucose levels should be measured before going to bed and at least once during the night.. Exercise should be avoided for 24 hours after an episode of hypoglycaemia because of the risk of a relapse of hypoglycaemia.. CH supplementation. This is explained in Section Drug-treatment adjustments per Section Treatment will vary depending on the severity of the hypoglycaemia.
Administer g of fast-acting CHs 4 glucose tablets, half a cup of juice or a glass of milk.. Measure capillary blood glucose level and repeat after 15 minutes.. If blood glucose levels remain low, repeat the intake of g of fast-acting CHs and measure blood glucose again after 15 minutes..
If low blood glucose levels persist, activate the emergency medical system by calling a medical service.. If blood glucose has normalised, take slow-burning CHs..
Exercise and Sport in Diabetes
Severe hypoglycaemia athlete is unconscious or does not respond to guidelines :. Use glucagon 1 mg given subcutaneously or intramuscularly.. If the patient's glycogen stores have been depleted by intense exercise, glucagon will not be effective and an intravenous glucose supply will be required.. Once the patient is able to swallow, give them some food.. It may also be related to an inadequate insulin administration, excessive intake, inactivity, disease, stress or injury..
If the test is positive, do not practise the sport until the levels are normalised.. A significant reduction in blood glucose levels is recommended to prevent ketoacidosis by administering additional doses of rapid-acting insulin.. To prevent hypoglycaemia, it is essential to monitor capillary blood glucose levels and to adjust not only CH supplements but also doses of hypoglycaemic drugs.
Physical Activity in Diabetes
For DM1, it may be useful to perform a second sprint before or after a sport.. To manage severe hypoglycaemia, a trained partner must accompany the athlete.. Capillary blood glucose monitoring before exercising will help to detect hyperglycaemia and prevent diabetic ketoacidosis.. Treatment with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion CSII provides clear advantages to patients with DM1 who regularly or sporadically practise sports, because CSII allows for continuous and more finely tuned dose adjustments. If patients also routinely or occasionally use CGM with or without combined insulin infusion , they should receive specific training so as to act according to their actual and predicted blood glucose levels..