Software Testing and Continuous Quality Improvement, Third Edition
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While automation cannot reproduce everything that a human can do and all the ways they think of doing it , it can be very useful for regression testing. However, it does require a well-developed test suite of testing scripts in order to be truly useful. Program testing and fault detection can be aided significantly by testing tools and debuggers. There are a number of frequently used software metrics , or measures, which are used to assist in determining the state of the software or the adequacy of the testing.
Based on the amount of test cases required to construct a complete test suite in each context i. It has been proved that each class is strictly included in the next. For instance, testing when we assume that the behavior of the implementation under test can be denoted by a deterministic finite-state machine for some known finite sets of inputs and outputs and with some known number of states belongs to Class I and all subsequent classes.
However, if the number of states is not known, then it only belongs to all classes from Class II on. If the implementation under test must be a deterministic finite-state machine failing the specification for a single trace and its continuations , and its number of states is unknown, then it only belongs to classes from Class III on. Testing temporal machines where transitions are triggered if inputs are produced within some real-bounded interval only belongs to classes from Class IV on, whereas testing many non-deterministic systems only belongs to Class V but not all, and some even belong to Class I.
The inclusion into Class I does not require the simplicity of the assumed computation model, as some testing cases involving implementations written in any programming language, and testing implementations defined as machines depending on continuous magnitudes, have been proved to be in Class I.
Other elaborated cases, such as the testing framework by Matthew Hennessy under must semantics, and temporal machines with rational timeouts, belong to Class II. A software testing process can produce several artifacts. The actual artifacts produced are a factor of the software development model used, stakeholder and organisational needs.
Several certification programs exist to support the professional aspirations of software testers and quality assurance specialists.
Software Testing Continuous Quality Improvement by Lewis William
Note that a few practitioners argue that the testing field is not ready for certification, as mentioned in the Controversy section. Some of the major software testing controversies include:. It is commonly believed that the earlier a defect is found, the cheaper it is to fix it. The following table shows the cost of fixing the defect depending on the stage it was found.
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With the advent of modern continuous deployment practices and cloud-based services, the cost of re-deployment and maintenance may lessen over time. The "smaller projects" curve turns out to be from only two teams of first-year students, a sample size so small that extrapolating to "smaller projects in general" is totally indefensible. The GTE study does not explain its data, other than to say it came from two projects, one large and one small. The paper cited for the Bell Labs "Safeguard" project specifically disclaims having collected the fine-grained data that Boehm's data points suggest.
The IBM study Fagan's paper contains claims that seem to contradict Boehm's graph and no numerical results that clearly correspond to his data points. Boehm doesn't even cite a paper for the TRW data, except when writing for "Making Software" in , and there he cited the original article.
There exists a large study conducted at TRW at the right time for Boehm to cite it, but that paper doesn't contain the sort of data that would support Boehm's claims. Software testing is used in association with verification and validation : . The terms verification and validation are commonly used interchangeably in the industry; it is also common to see these two terms defined with contradictory definitions. The contradiction is caused by the use of the concepts of requirements and specified requirements but with different meanings.
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In the case of IEEE standards, the specified requirements, mentioned in the definition of validation, are the set of problems, needs and wants of the stakeholders that the software must solve and satisfy. And, the products mentioned in the definition of verification, are the output artifacts of every phase of the software development process.
These products are, in fact, specifications such as Architectural Design Specification, Detailed Design Specification, etc. The SRS is also a specification, but it cannot be verified at least not in the sense used here, more on this subject below. But, for the ISO , the specified requirements are the set of specifications, as just mentioned above, that must be verified.
A specification, as previously explained, is the product of a software development process phase that receives another specification as input. A specification is verified successfully when it correctly implements its input specification.
All the specifications can be verified except the SRS because it is the first one it can be validated, though. Both the SRS and the software must be validated. The SRS can be validated statically by consulting with the stakeholders. Nevertheless, running some partial implementation of the software or a prototype of any kind dynamic testing and obtaining positive feedback from them, can further increase the certainty that the SRS is correctly formulated. On the other hand, the software, as a final and running product not its artifacts and documents, including the source code must be validated dynamically with the stakeholders by executing the software and having them to try it.
Thinking this way is not advisable as it only causes more confusion. It is better to think of verification as a process involving a formal and technical input document. Software testing may be considered a part of a software quality assurance SQA process.
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They examine and change the software engineering process itself to reduce the number of faults that end up in the delivered software: the so-called defect rate. What constitutes an acceptable defect rate depends on the nature of the software; A flight simulator video game would have much higher defect tolerance than software for an actual airplane. Although there are close links with SQA, testing departments often exist independently, and there may be no SQA function in some companies.
Software testing is an activity to investigate software under test in order to provide quality-related information to stakeholders. By contrast, QA quality assurance is the implementation of policies and procedures intended to prevent defects from reaching customers. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
An examination of how efficient and reliable software is at performing its intended function. Main article: White-box testing. Main article: Black-box testing. Further information: Graphical user interface testing. Main article: Gray box testing. Main article: Unit testing.
- Software Testing and Continuous Quality Improvement - CRC Press Book.
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Main article: Integration testing. Main article: System testing. Main article: Operational acceptance testing. Main article: Installation testing. Main article: Compatibility testing. Main article: Smoke testing software. Main article: Regression testing. Main article: Acceptance testing. Main article: Continuous testing. Main article: Destructive testing. Further information: Exception handling and Recovery testing. Main article: Software performance testing.
Software Testing and Continuous Quality Improvement | Taylor & Francis Group
Main article: Development testing. Main article: Concurrent testing. Main article: Conformance testing.
Main article: Test automation. Main article: Software quality. Main articles: Verification and validation software and Software quality control. Exploratory Testing PDF. Orlando, FL. Retrieved November 22, Carnegie Mellon University. Retrieved November 21, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
Retrieved December 8, Testing Computer Software, 2nd Ed. New York, et al. International Software Testing Qualifications Board. March 31, Section 1. Retrieved December 15, July 1, Principle 2, Section 1. Montreal, QC, Canada. National Institute of Standards and Technology. May Retrieved December 19, CIO Review India ed.
Retrieved December 20, Communications of the ACM.
More Agile Testing. Addison-Wesley Professional. The Art of Software Testing. John Wiley and Sons. Foundations of Software Testing. Cengage Learning. Verification and Validation in Scientific Computing.